The captain realized that the men tried to deceive him so he made them work very hard for the rest of the voyage. (Passage One)
1、【题目】Part IV Translation
As the source of aluminum is almost inexhaustible, we can expect that more and more uses will be found for this versatile metal. (Passage Two)
1、【题目】Let children learn to judge their own work. A child learning to talk does not learn by being corrected all the time; if corrected too much, he will stop talking. He notices a thousand times a day the difference between the languages he uses and the language those around him use. Bit by bit, he makes the necessary changes to make his language like other people. In the same way, when children learn to do all the other things they learn to do without being taught-to walk, run, climb, whistle, ride a bicycle-compare those performances with those of more skilled people, and slowly make the needed changes. But in school we never give a child a chance to find out his own mistakes for himself, let alone correct them. We do it all for him. We act as if we thought that he would never notice a mistake unless it was pointed out to him, or correct it unless he was made to. Soon he becomes dependent on the teacher. Let him do it himself. Let him work out, with the help of other children if he wants it, what this word says, what answer is to that problem, whether this is a good way of saying or doing this or not.
If it is a matter of right answers, as it may be in mathematics or science, give him the answer book. Let him correct his own papers. Why should we teachers waste time on such routine work? Our job should be to help the child when he tells us that he can’t find the way to get the right answer. Let’s end this nonsense of grades, exams, marks, Let us throw them all out, and let the children learn what all educated persons must some day learn, how to measure their own understanding, how to know what they know or do not know.
Let them get on with this job in the way that seems sensible to them. With our help as school teachers if they ask for it. The idea that there is a body of knowledge to be learnt at school and used for the rest of one’s life is nonsense in a world as complicated and rapidly changing as ours. Anxious parents and teachers say, “But suppose they fail to learn something essential they will need to get in the world?” Don’t worry! If it is essential, they will go out into the world and learn it.
1.What does the author think is the best way for children to learn things?
A.by copying what other people do.
B.by making mistakes and having them corrected.
C.by listening to explanations from skilled people.
D.by asking a great many questions.
2.What does the author think teachers do which they should not do?
A.They give children correct answers.
B.They point out children’s mistakes to them.
C.They allow children to mark their own work.
D.They encourage children to mark to copy from one another.
3.The passage suggests that learning to speak and learning to ride a bicycle are___.
A.not really important skills.
B.more important than other skills.
C.basically different from learning adult skills.
D.basically the same as learning other skills.
4.Exams, grades, and marks should be abolished because children’s progress should only be estimated by___.
B.the children themselves.
5.The author fears that children will grow up into adults while being___.
A.too independent of others.
B.too critical of themselves.
C.incapable to think for themselves.
D.incapable to use basic skills.
Nowadays, China is stepping into the aging society. Therefore, the only-child generation is facing enormous pressure both from work and life. The Chinese government has begun to adjust the familyplanning policy and allows some families to have a second child under certain circumstances. However, the survey shows thatsome couples abandon to have a second child due to the increasing financial burden. Thus, in order to solve the aging problem,the basic thing is not relying on the increase of birth rate. The best solution is to establish an effective social security system.
1、【题目】In the last 12 years total employment in the United States grew faster than at any time in the peacetime history of any country – from 82 to 110 million between 1973 and 1985 – that is, by a full one third. The entire growth, however, was in manufacturing, and especially in no – blue-collar jobs…
This trend is the same in all developed countries, and is, indeed, even more pronounced in Japan. It is therefore highly probable that in 25 years developed countries such as the United States and Japan will employ no larger a proportion of the labor force I n manufacturing than developed countries now employ in farming – at most, 10 percent. Today the United States employs around 18 million people in blue-collar jobs in manufacturing industries. By 2010, the number is likely to be no more than 12 million. In some major industries the drop will be even sharper. It is quite unrealistic, for instance, to expect that the American automobile industry will employ more than one –third of its present blue-collar force 25 years hence, even though production might be 50 percent higher.
If a company, an industry or a country does not in the next quarter century sharply increase manufacturing production and at the same time sharply reduce the blue-collar work force, it cannot hope to remain competitive – or even to remain “developed.” The attempt to preserve such blue – collar jobs is actually a prescription for unemployment…
This is not a conclusion that American politicians, labor leaders or indeed the general public can easily understand or accept. What confuses the issue even more it that the United States is experiencing several separate and different shifts in the manufacturing economy. One is the acceleration of the substitution of knowledge and capital for manual labor. Where we spoke of mechanization a few decades ago, we now speak of “robotization “ or “automation.” This is actually more a change in terminology than a change in reality. When Henry Ford introduced the assembly line in 1909, he cut the number of man – hours required to produce a motor car by some 80 percent in two or three years –far more than anyone expects to result from even the most complete robotization. But there is no doubt that we are facing a new, sharp acceleration in the replacement of manual workers by machines –that is, by the products of knowledge.
1.According to the author, the shrinkage in the manufacturing labor force demonstrates______.
A.the degree to which a country’s production is robotized
B.a reduction in a country’s manufacturing industries
C.a worsening relationship between labor and management
D.the difference between a developed country and a developing country
2.According to the author, in coming 25years, a developed country or industry, in order t remain competitive, ought to ______.
A.reduce the percentage of the blue-collar work force
B.preserve blue – collar jobs for international competition
C.accelerate motor – can manufacturing in Henry Ford’s style
D.solve the problem of unemployment
3.American politicians and labor leaders tend to dislike_____.
A.confusion in manufacturing economy
B.an increase in blue – collar work force
C.internal competition in manufacturing production
D.a drop in the blue – collar job opportunities
4.The word “prescription” in “a prescription for unemployment” may be the equivalent to ______
A.something recommended as medical treatment
B.a way suggested to overcome some difficulty
C.some measures taken in advance
D.a device to dire
5.This passage may have been excepted from ________
A.a magazine about capital investment
B.an article on automation
C.a motor-car magazine
D.an article on global economy